Adaptive Management Symposium on Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems at Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KHNHP)

An Invitational Symposium sponsored by The State of Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management

in Partnership with University of Hawai‘i ‘Ike Wai and ‘Ohana Members from the ahupua‘a on which the Park is situated

and in Cooperation with Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park


Participants will be able to access information about the symposium and a repository of research about different facets of the groundwater dependent ecosystems that are the focus of this symposium.

Symposium Information

Project Description

Participant Bios


Discussion Starters

Final Report

Final Annexes
Annex 1 - 5Annex 6 - 10Annex 11 - 16Annex 17 - 22


Research Repository

Categories: HydrologyAnchialine PoolsNearshore HabitatsInvasivesClimate Change

Please review this research before you arrive at the symposium so you will be able to contribute productively to the discussions. If you believe that a critical piece of research has been left out, please contact us with the document and a short summary of the results of the research. Mahalo!

Hydrology & Groundwater Discharge

Continuous Groundwater Monitoring: This website, provided by NPS, provides continuous groundwater monitoring data in KHNHP.

Impact of Groundwater Discharge at Maui: "We employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui"

Geochemical Evolution of Hawaiian Groundwater: Dissertation about dissolved nutrient distribution through groundwater flows in Maui and West Hawaii

Investigation of Geochemical Indicators at KHNHP: "An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area."

National Park Service Report on Groundwater: NPS Report on the amount of groundwater needed to preserve the natural and cultural resource of KHNHP.

SGD – What is it for in a Water Resource Study?: Powerpoint presentation on basics of SGD and a case study on the Kiholo Aquifer

Summary of Scientific Research on the Northern Section of the Keauhou Aquifer System: Presented to the Kona Water Roundtable in 2014, this report is summaries of 4 different professionals' work in the region.

West Hawaii Groundwater Flow: Image summarizing West Hawaii groundwater flow based on calculated flow paths and conceptual models

Optimal Management of a Hawaiian Coastal Aquifer with Nearshore Marine Ecological Interactions: Proposed model of SGD standards incorporating consequences on nearshore resources

Keauhou Well Map: Map of wells in Keauhou aquifer from USGS

Keauhou Pumpage: A chart of current and historical pumpage data.

Assessment of SGD by handheld aerial infrared imagery: Case study of Kaloko fishpond and bay

Autonomous long-term gama spectrometric monitoring of SGD trends in Hawaii

Chorofluorocarbon apparent ages of groundwaters from west Hawaii

Quantification of point-source groundwater discharges to the ocean from the shoreline

Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near KHNHP

Anchialine Pools & Fishponds

Anchialine Pools: Basic information on achialine pools from DLNR DAR

Protecting Anchialine Ponds: Summary of resources in anchialine ponds.

All About Anchialine Pools: Powerpoint presentation about anchialine ponds

Nearshore Habitats

 KHNHP Foundation Document: Overview of the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park and its resources

USGS Waterbirds: Description and distribution of waterbirds across Hawaii

36 Years of Environmental Monitoring: NELHA summary of monitoring of biota, nutrient levels of anchialine ponds and ecosystems

Assessment of the Coral Reef Habitat in KHNHP Adjacent to the Shores at Kohanaiki Development: "This study provides current-condition baseline data and long-term methodology for coral reef habitats within the northern portion of [KHNHP] for 2006-2007"

 Aerial infrared imaging reveals large nutrient-rich groundwater inputs to West Hawaii

SGD and nutrient adition to the coastal zone and coral reefs of leeward Hawaii

Invasive Species & Contaminants

Pacific Island Network Vital Signs Monitoring Plan: Effective monitoring of resource trends needs to be on an ecosystem level in order to improve park management

Water Quality in Pools and Groundwater Monitoring Wells: Summary Report for 2012-2014 of water quality in National Parks on the west coast of Hawaii Island.

Inputs of Nutrients and Pollutants to Hawaiian Coastal Waters from Submarine Groundwater Discharge: A dissertation that studied SGD-related inputs of nutrients, like caffeine, nitrate+nitrite concentrations, and fecal indicator bacteria to coastal waters in north Kauai and Kona

Nutrient Inputs into the Coastal Ocean from SGD in a Groundwater-Dominateed System: Relation to Land Use: "We evaluated the magnitude and composition (in terms of salinity, 223Ra and 224Ra activity, and nutrient concentrations) of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) fluxes at 11 sites on the Kona coast of Hawaii."

Influences of N-fixing and Non-N-fixing Vegetation and Invasive Fish on Water Chemistry of Hawaiian Anchialine Ponds

Baseline Water-Quality Sampling to Infer Nutrient and Contaminant Sources at KHNHP

SGD and Fate Along the Coast of KHNHP: USGS scientific investigations report in 2008 about variations in salinity, radium-isotope activity, and nutrient concentrations in coastal waters

Climate Change

Modeling Shifts in Habitat due to Sea Level Rise: Groundwater-fed ecosystem shift and fish distribution models to account for climate change

Predicting Sea Level Rise Impacts on Hawaii's Anchialine Pool Ecosystems: Powerpoint presentation on SLR modeling including potential creation of new anchialine pools.

Hawaii Sea Level Rise Vulnerabiity and Adaptation Report: Hawaii Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission report combines best available science on climate change and makes recommendations for sustainable land use and community development.

Hawaii Sea Level Rise Viewer: Interactive map created by PacIOOS

Coastal Resilience Hawaii: Project on the effect of sea level rise on anchialine pools and coastal habitats on Hawaii Island


Map of wells in Keauhou aquifer area

Traditional pictures found at the Mission Houses archives

Designation Research: CWRM website on the designation process.

Response to the Commission on Water Resource Management Request for Information on Traditional and Customary Practices: National Park Service Report on the exercise of traditional practices in KHNHP

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